A brief history of Artificial Intelligence: Everyone should Know!!!!!!!!

Before going to know about Artificial Intelligence, let us first know

Can Machines Think?

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Making the Pursuit Possible

The Conference that Started it All

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Roller Coaster of Success and Setbacks

Breaching the initial fog of AI revealed a mountain of obstacles. The biggest was the lack of computational power to do anything substantial: computers simply couldn’t store enough information or process it fast enough. In order to communicate, for example, one needs to know the meanings of many words and understand them in many combinations. Hans Moravec, a doctoral student of McCarthy at the time, stated that “computers were still millions of times too weak to exhibit intelligence.” As patience dwindled so did the funding, and research came to a slow roll for ten years.

In the 1980’s, AI was reignited by two sources: an expansion of the algorithmic toolkit, and a boost of funds. John Hopfield and David Rumelhart popularized “deep learning” techniques which allowed computers to learn user experience. On the other hand, Edward Feigenbaum introduced expert systems which mimicked the decision-making process of a human expert. The program would ask an expert in a field how to respond in a given situation, and once this was learned for virtually every situation, non-experts could receive advice from that program. Expert systems were widely used in industries. The Japanese government heavily funded expert systems and other AI-related endeavours as part of their Fifth Generation Computer Project (FGCP). From 1982–1990, they invested $400 million dollars with the goals of revolutionizing computer processing, implementing logic programming, and improving artificial intelligence. Unfortunately, most of the ambitious goals were not met. However, it could be argued that the indirect effects of the FGCP inspired a talented young generation of engineers and scientists. Regardless, funding of the FGCP ceased, and AI fell out of the limelight.

Ironically, in the absence of government funding and public hype, AI thrived. During the 1990s and 2000s, many of the landmark goals of artificial intelligence had been achieved. In 1997, reigning world chess champion and grandmaster Gary Kasparov was defeated by IBM’s Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer program. This highly publicized match was the first time a reigning world chess champion loss to a computer and served as a huge step towards an artificially intelligent decision-making program. In the same year, speech recognition software, developed by Dragon Systems, was implemented on Windows. This was another great step forward but in the direction of the spoken language interpretation endeavour. It seemed that there weren’t a problem machines couldn’t handle. Even human emotion was fair game as evidenced by Kismet, a robot developed by Cynthia Breazeal that could recognize and display emotions.

Time Heals all Wounds

Artificial Intelligence is Everywhere

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The Future

Rockwell Anyoha is a graduate student in the department of molecular biology with a background in physics and genetics. His current project employs the use of machine learning to model animal behaviour. In his free time, Rockwell enjoys playing soccer and debating mundane topics.

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Iam a Technical Content writer having 4years of Industry experience. Till now, I have written 300+ articles and 6 tutorials